Parkstone International
Date de publication
Perfect Square


Parkstone International

Perfect Square

Aide EAN13 : 9781780424521
  • Fichier PDF, avec Marquage en filigrane
Picasso was born a Spaniard and, so they say, began to draw before he could
speak. As an infant he was instinctively attracted to artist’s tools. In early
childhood he could spend hours in happy concentration drawing spirals with a
sense and meaning known only to himself. At other times, shunning children’s
games, he traced his first pictures in the sand. This early self-expression
held out promise of a rare gift. Málaga must be mentioned, for it was there,
on 25 October 1881, that Pablo Ruiz Picasso was born and it was there that he
spent the first ten years of his life. Picasso’s father was a painter and
professor at the School of Fine Arts and Crafts. Picasso learnt from him the
basics of formal academic art training. Then he studied at the Academy of Arts
in Madrid but never finished his degree. Picasso, who was not yet eighteen,
had reached the point of his greatest rebelliousness; he repudiated academia’s
anemic aesthetics along with realism’s pedestrian prose and, quite naturally,
joined those who called themselves modernists, the non-conformist artists and
writers, those whom Sabartés called “the élite of Catalan thought” and who
were grouped around the artists’ café Els Quatre Gats. During 1899 and 1900
the only subjects Picasso deemed worthy of painting were those which reflected
the “final truth”; the transience of human life and the inevitability of
death. His early works, ranged under the name of “Blue Period” (1901-1904),
consist in blue-tinted paintings influenced by a trip through Spain and the
death of his friend, Casagemas. Even though Picasso himself repeatedly
insisted on the inner, subjective nature of the Blue Period, its genesis and,
especially, the monochromatic blue were for many years explained as merely the
results of various aesthetic influences. Between 1905 and 1907, Picasso
entered a new phase, called “Rose Period” characterised by a more cheerful
style with orange and pink colours. In Gosol, in the summer of 1906 the nude
female form assumed an extraordinary importance for Picasso; he equated a
depersonalised, aboriginal, simple nakedness with the concept of “woman”. The
importance that female nudes were to assume as subjects for Picasso in the
next few months (in the winter and spring of 1907) came when he developed the
composition of the large painting, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. Just as African
art is usually considered the factor leading to the development of Picasso’s
classic aesthetics in 1907, the lessons of Cézanne are perceived as the
cornerstone of this new progression. This relates, first of all, to a spatial
conception of the canvas as a composed entity, subjected to a certain
constructive system. Georges Braque, with whom Picasso became friends in the
autumn of 1908 and together with whom he led Cubism during the six years of
its apogee, was amazed by the similarity of Picasso’s pictorial experiments to
his own. He explained that: “Cubism’s main direction was the materialisation
of space.” After his Cubist period, in the 1920s, Picasso returned to a more
figurative style and got closer to the surrealist movement. He represented
distorted and monstrous bodies but in a very personal style. After the bombing
of Guernica during 1937, Picasso made one of his most famous works which
starkly symbolises the horrors of that war and, indeed, all wars. In the
1960s, his art changed again and Picasso began looking at the art of great
masters and based his paintings on ones by Velázquez, Poussin, Goya, Manet,
Courbet and Delacroix. Picasso’s final works were a mixture of style, becoming
more colourful, expressive and optimistic. Picasso died in 1973, in his villa
in Mougins. The Russian Symbolist Georgy Chulkov wrote: “Picasso’s death is
tragic. Yet how blind and naïve are those who believe in imitating Picasso and
learning from him. Learning what? For these forms have no corresponding
emotions outside of Hell. But to be in Hell means to anticipate death. The
Cubists are hardly privy to such unlimited knowledge”.
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